## CONNECTORS

The letters ‘fe’ and ‘qaaf’ are connectors and follow the same principles of joining as most other connectors we’ve come across.

## 17.3.1: In the Initial position

Let’s look at the shortened form these letters assume in the initial position. For this, let’s look at how they connect with ‘alif’:

قا
• qaa
• क़ा
فا
• faa
• फ़ा

Above: Words “faa” and “qaa” formed by joining ‘fe’ and ‘qaaf’ in the initial position with ‘alif’ in the final position

IMPORTANT

Even though the full form of letters ‘fe’ and ‘qaaf’ have slightly different shapes, you’ll notice that their short forms are identical with only the number of nuqte differentiating ‘qaaf’ from ‘fe’.

To clarify, here’s what it means for ‘fe’:

Full form ف
• fe
• फ़े
=
Short form
• fe
• फ़े

Above: Comparative illustrating the short-form assumed by ‘fe’ in the initial position

And here’s what it means for ‘qaaf’:

Full form ق
• qaaf
=
Short form
• qaaf

Above: Comparative illustrating the short-form assumed by ‘qaaf’ in the initial position

And now, let’s see these rules in action in the word “faash” (फ़ाश), meaning “disclose”:

فاش
• faash
• फ़ाश
=
ش
• shiin
• शीन
+
ا
• alif
• अलिफ़
+
ف
• fe
• फ़े

Above: ‘fe’ + ‘alif’ + ‘shiin’ = “faash”

Or, in the short-form notation:

فاش
• faash
• फ़ाश
=
ش
• shiin
• शीन
+
ا
• alif
• अलिफ़
+
• fe
• फ़े

Above: Short-form of ‘fe’ + ‘alif’ + ‘shiin’ = “faash”

Similarly, here’s the word “qaash” (क़ाश), meaning “slice/piece”:

قاش
• qaash
• क़ाश
=
ش
• shiin
• शीन
+
ا
• alif
• अलिफ़
+
ق
• qaaf
• क़ाफ़

Above: ‘qaaf’ + ‘alif’ + ‘shiin’ = “qaash”

Here’s another word - “faanuus” (फ़ानूस), meaning “chandelier”:

فانوس
• faanuus
• फ़ानूस
=
س
• siin
• सीन
+
و
• vaao
• वाओ
+
ن
• nuun
• नून
+
ا
• alif
• अलिफ़
+
ف
• fe
• फ़े

Above: ‘fe’ + ‘alif’ + ‘nuun’ + ‘vaao’ + ‘siin’ = “faanuus”

Here’s a simple word “fan” (फ़न), meaning “art/skill”:

فن
• fan
• फ़न
=
ن
• nuun
• नून
+
ف
• fe
• फ़े

Above: ‘fe’ + ‘nuun’ = “fan”

The example above illustrates how these letters join in their initial position with other consonants, in this case the letter ‘nuun’.

Similarly, here’s another simple word “qad” (क़द), meaning “height/stature”:

قد
• क़द
=
د
• daal
• दाल
+
ق
• qaaf
• क़ाफ़

Above: ‘qaaf’ + ‘daal’ = “qad”

Let’s take this a step further and see how the word “qadGan” (क़दग़न), meaning “prohibition/restriction”, is written:

قدغن
• क़दग़न
=
ن
• nuun
• नून
+
غ
• Gain
• ग़ैन
+
د
• daal
• दाल
+
ق
• qaaf
• क़ाफ़

Above: ‘qaaf’ + ‘daal’ + ‘Gain’ + ‘nuun’ = “qadGan”

## 17.3.2: In the Medial position

To see the short-form these letters assume in the medial position, let’s look at the word “jafaa” (जफ़ा), meaning “injustice/tyranny”:

جفا
• jafaa
• जफ़ा
=
ا
• alif
• अलिफ़
+
ف
• fe
• फ़े
+
ج
• jiim
• जीम

Above: ‘jiim’ + ‘fe’ + ‘alif’ = “jafaa”

Can you identify the ‘fe’ in there? Here’s an illustration showing its medial position short-form:

Full formف
• fe
• फ़े
=
Short form
• fe
• फ़े

Above: Comparative illustrating the short-form assumed by ‘fe’ in the medial position

Therefore, the word “jafaa”, in the short-form notation:

جفا
• jafaa
• जफ़ा
=
ا
• alif
• अलिफ़
+
• fe
• फ़े
+
• jeem
• जीम

Above: Short-form of ‘jiim’ + short-form of ‘fe’ + ‘alif’ = “jafaa”

Similarly, here’s the word “baqaa” (बक़ा), meaning “eternity”:

بقا
• baqaa
• बक़ा
=
ا
• alif
• अलिफ़
+
ق
• qaaf
• क़ाफ़
+
ب
• be
• बे

Above: ‘be’ + ‘qaaf’ + ‘alif’ = “baqaa”

## 17.3.3: In the Final position

In the final position, as is common with Urdu letters, ‘fe’ and ‘qaaf’ do not change shape. Here’s the name of the letter ‘qaaf’ (क़ाफ़) itself as an example:

قاف
• qaaf
• क़ाफ़

Above: The word “qaaf”. Notice that the ‘fe’ does not change shape being in the final position.

Here, ‘fe’ being in the final position does not change shape. Here’s another example - ‘saaf’ (साफ़), meaning “clean/pure”:

صاف
• saaf
• साफ़
=
ف
• fe
• फ़े
+
ا
• alif
• अलिफ़
+
ص
• सुआद

Above: ‘suaad’ + ‘alif’ + ‘fe’ = “saaf”

Here’s another example, the word - “shaq” (शक़), meaning “crack”:

شق
• shaq
• शक़
=
ق
• qaaf
• क़ाफ़
+
ش
• shiin
• शीन

Above: ‘shiin’ + ‘qaaf’ = “shaq”

Here, even though the ‘qaaf’ is connected with the ‘shiin’ preceding it, since the ‘qaaf’ itself is in the final position, it does not change shape and retains its full-form.

## 17.3.4: Some more words

Here are a few more words with the letters we’ve learnt so far.

فارِغ
• faariG
• फ़ारिग़
فِدا
• fidaa
• फ़िदा
فَرد
• fard
• फ़र्द
فَرض
• farz
• फ़र्ज़
فساد
• फ़साद
فضا
• fazaa
• फ़ज़ा
فَرح
• farah
• फ़रह
فَرار
• faraar
• फ़रार
فَجر
• fajr
• फ़ज्र
فَخر
• faKHr
• फ़ख़्र
فوج
• fauj
• फ़ौज
شریفہ
• shariifa
• शरीफ़ा
فَرش
• farsh
• फ़र्श
قَبا
• qabaa
• क़बा
قَبر
• qabr
• क़ब्र
قَدر
• क़द्र
قَرار
• qaraar
• क़रार
قَرض
• qarz
• क़र्ज़
قُدرت
• qudrat
• क़ुदरत
قِسط
• qist
• क़िस्त
قَضا
• qazaa
• क़ज़ा
قَواعد
• qavaa.id
• क़वाइद
قاعِدہ
• qaa.ida
• क़ाइदा
قانوٗن
• qaanuun
• क़नून
قَوانین
• qavaaniin
• क़वानीन
قَطرہ
• qatra
• क़तरा
قِصّہ
• qissa
• क़िस्सा
قصیدہ
• qasiida
• क़सीदा
آفَت
• aafat
• आफ़त
رَفتار
• raftaar
• रफ़्तार
اَفسَر
• afsar
• अफ़्सर
دَفتَر
• daftar
• दफ़्तर
سَفَر
• safar
• सफ़र
سَفیر
• safiir
• सफ़ीर
وَفا
• vafaa
• वफ़ा
وَفات
• vafaat
• वफ़ात
ظفر
• zafar
• ज़फ़र
تفریح
• tafriih
• तफ़रीह
طوٗفان
• tuufaan
• तूफ़ान
بَرفی
• barfii
• बर्फ़ी
رَفیع
• rafii
• रफ़ी
شَفیع
• shafii
• शफ़ी
صِفَر
• sifar
• सिफ़र
آقا
• aaqaa
• आक़ा
چاقوٗ
• chaaquu
• चाक़ू
تقدیر
• taqdiir
• तक़्दीर
تقسیم
• taqsiim
• तक़्सीम
نَقد
• नक़द
نُقصان
• nuqsaan
• नुक़सान
تنقید
• tanqiid
• तंक़ीद
نَقّاد
• नक़्क़ाद
ناقِد
• naaqid
• नाक़िद
حَقیقت
• haqiiqat
• हक़ीक़त
حُقّہ
• huqqa
• हुक़्क़ा
رِقّت
• riqqat
• रिक़्क़त
چُقندَر
• chuqandar
• चुक़ंदर
وَقت
• vaqt
• वक़्त
وَقار
• vaqaar
• वक़ार
اُف
• uf
• उफ़
حَرف
• harf
• हर्फ़
خوف
• KHauf
• ख़ौफ़
عُرف
• urf
• उर्फ़
بَرف
• barf
• बर्फ़
طَرَف
• taraf
• तरफ़
رَدیف
• रदीफ़
شریف
• shariif
• शरीफ़
واقِف
• vaaqif
• वाक़िफ़
ظریف
• zariif
• ज़रीफ़
تعریف
• taariif
• तारीफ़
صَرّاف
• sarraaf
• सर्राफ़
صِرف
• sirf
• सिर्फ़
اوراق
• auraaq
• औराक़
وَرَق
• varaq
• वरक़
حَق
• haq
• हक़
فَرق
• farq
• फ़र्क़
طَواف
• tavaaf
• तवाफ़
عَرَق
• araq
• अरक़
طاق
• taaq
• ताक़
طَبَق
• tabaq
• तबक़
عاشق
• aashiq
• आशिक़
عشق
• ishq
• इश्क़
غَرق
• Garq
• ग़र्क़
بَرق
• barq
• बर्क़

### faariG

##### फ़ारिग़

This brings us to the end of the 'fe' group. See? It got a little simpler after the ‘ain’.