## INTRODUCTION

We’ve seen that letters of the 'daal' and 're' groups are non-connectors and do not change shape when connecting with other letters.

There is, however, an important exception to this rule. And this exception can be summarized as follows:

Letters of the 'daal' and 're' groups do not change shape in their initial positions.

They do not change shape in their medial or final positions either when preceded by a non-connector.

They do change shape when preceded by a connector, such as letters from the 'be' and 'jiim' groups and such.

## 9.1.1: ‘daal’ & be Group

بَدبد
• बद
vs
باد
• बाद

Above: Observe the change in shape of the letter ‘daal’ in the word “bad”

In both the words shown above, the letter ‘daal’ is in the final position. However, in the word “baad” it is preceded by ‘alif’ which is a non-connector and hence, does not change shape.

On the other hand, in the word “bad” the ‘daal’ is preceded by ‘be’ which is a connector and therefore, the ‘daal’ undergoes a shape change as shown below:

Shape changed
• daal
• दाल
=
Unchangedد
• daal
• दाल

Above: Observe the change in shape of the letter ‘daal’ in the word “bad”

Let’s take another example and let’s look at the words  “aabaad” (आबाद) meaning "inhabited" and “abad” (अबद), meaning "eternity":

اَبَدابَد
• अबद
vs
آباد
• आबाद

Above: Observe the change in shape of the letter ‘daal’ in the word  “abad”

## 9.1.2: ‘daal’ & jiim Group

In a similar fashion, consider the following comparison between the words “rad” (रद) and “had” (हद):

حَدحد
• हद
vs
رَدرد
• रद

Above: Observe the change in shape of the letter ‘daal’ in the words “rad” and “had”

Again, in the word “had” the ‘daal’ is preceded by ‘he’ which is a connector and therefore, the ‘daal’ undergoes a shape change.

## 9.1.3: ‘re’ & be Group

Once again, let’s look at a comparison between the words “Dar” (अर) and “par” (बर):

پر
• par
• पर
vs
ڈر
• Dar
• डर

Above: Comparing the change in shape of the letter ‘re’ in the words “Dar” and “par”

In both the words shown above, the letter ‘re’ is in the final position. However, in the word “Dar” it is preceded by ‘alif’ which is a non-connector and hence, does not change shape.

On the other hand, in the word “par” the ‘re’ is preceded by ‘pe’ which is a connector and therefore, the ‘re’ undergoes a shape change as shown below:

Shape changed
• re
• रे
vs
Unchangedر
• re
• रे

Above: Observing the change in shape of the letter ‘re’ in the words “Dar” and “par”

Let’s take another example and let’s look at the words “baar” (बार) and “uja.D” (उजड़):

اُجَڑاجڑ
• uja.D
• उजड़
vs
بار
• baar
• बार

Above: Comparing the change in shape of the letter ‘re’ in the words “baar” and “uja.D”

## 9.1.4: ‘re’ & jiim Group

And yet again, following in a similar fashion, let’s look at a comparison between the words “a.D” (अड़) and “ja.D” (जड़):

جڑ
• ja.D
• जड़
vs
اڑ
• a.D
• अड़

Above: Comparing the change in shape of the letter ‘re’ in the words “a.D” and “ja.D”

Here again, in the word “ja.D”, the ‘.De’ is preceded by ‘jiim’ which is a connector and therefore, the ‘.De’ undergoes a shape change.

Let’s take another example and let’s look at the words “KHaar” (ख़ार) and “KHabar” (ख़बर):

خَبَرخبَر
• KHabar
• ख़बर
vs
خار
• KHaar
• ख़ार

Above: Comparing the change in shape of the letter ‘re’ in the words “KHabar” and “KHaar”

Great! With this, we’ve covered the shape change that 'daal' and 're' group letters undergo in their medial and final positions.

بَدَنبدَن
• बदन
بَدبد
• बद
خاندان
• KHaandaan
• ख़ानदान
نِداندا
• nidaa
• निदा
حَدحد
• हद
جُداجدا
• judaa
• जुदा
خُداخدا
• KHudaa
• ख़ुदा
اَنڈاانڈا
• anDaa
• अंडा
اَجداداجداد
• अज्दाद
ڈَنڈاڈنڈا
• DanDaa
• डंडा
ٹِنڈاٹنڈا
• TinDaa
• टिंडा
پِنڈاپنڈا
• pinDaa
• पिंडा
چَندَنچندَن
• chandan
• चंदन
پابَندپابند
• paaband
• पाबंद
اَبجَدابجَد